Sites Around Tian'anmen
Tian'anmen (Gate of Heavenly
The Rostrum of Tian'anmen was
opened to the public for the first time in its
history in 1988. From the rostrum, the late Chairman
Mao Zedong proclaimed the founding of the People's
Republic of China on October 1, 1949, and since
then Tian'anmen has been the symbol of the new
In modem Chinese history, several
large mass demonstrations have taken place here.
The most famous was on May 4, 1919, when more
than 3,000 students from Beijing schools and universities
came to the square to demonstrate against imperialism
and the role of the warlords. The event was a
landmark in modem Chinese history.
The structure was first named
Chengtianmen (Gate of Power Endowed from Heaven
or Gate of Heavenly Succession) when it was built
in 1417 as the main entrance of the former Imperial
Palace. In 1456 the wooden structure burned down
after it was struck by lightning. In 1644, the
Manchus defeated Li Zicheng (1606-1645), leader
of a peasant uprising; the latter set a fire to
the building before running away from the city.
The building was enlarged when it was rebuilt
for the second time in 1651, and renamed Tian'anmen.
This is the structure, which still stands today.
The nine-room-wide and five-room-long wooden gate
tower was built to reflect the highly-exalted
status of the emperor.
Located to the north of Tian'anmen
Square, Tian'anmen is a building which has red
stonewalls, a wooden roof and five entrances--the
largest, in the middle, lea&s to the Forbidden
City. The building is surrounded by a moat, Jinshui
(Golden Water), which was designed to guard the
Imperial Palace. Five marble bridges, the Golden
Water Bridges, lead to the five passages of the
gate. Two ornamental columns stand in front of
the whole complex.
The gate and the square were
out of bounds to the public in imperial times.
The emperor alone was entitled to pass through
the central passage. Before leaving on a journey
he would make a sacrifice in front of the gate.
At other times imperial edicts were sent down,
in a gilded box shaped like a phoenix, to officials
kneeling below. Hence the expression: "the
Imperial Orders Given by the Gilded Phoenix"
The edict was then taken to the Ministry of Rites
where copies were made for dispatch to the whole
country. It was also the place for the emperor
to review royal armies and receive prisoners of
Tian'anmen (Gate of Heavenly
Peace) is not only the site of the most important
gatherings since the founding of the People's
Republic of China, but also one of the most valuable
historical sites in China. Parades take place
here on important days, such as the rallies on
May 1 International Labour Day and October 1 (National
Day). Before each parade the building is repainted
and generally tidied up. The whole tower roof
was replaced as part of a large-scale restoration
in 1984, following the original line and shape.
The balcony is 34.7 metres high, 62.77 metres
long and 27.25 metres wide. It can hold 20,000
guests. There are 67 steps leading to the top
of the Rostrum of Tian'anmen Gate.
Tiananmen was the front gate
of Forbidden City - the imperial palace during
the Ming and Qing dynasties. Measuring 880 meters
in length and 500 meters in width, Tian'anmen
Square is located in the center of Beijing; military
parade takes place here on China's National Day.
The square has witnessed the Chinese people's
struggle against foreign aggression and reactionary
rule at home. In 1919, the May 4th Movement broke
out in Beijing. Students and residents staged
a patriotic demonstration in the square. In 1935,
students in Beijing launched the December 9th
Movement against the Japanese aggression and Chiang
Kai-shek's policy of non-resistance. They held
a demonstration in the square. On April 5,1976,
lots of people gathered here to commemorate Zbou
Enlai (1898-1976) and oppose the "Gang of
Four (referring to Jiang Qing, Zhang Chunqiao,
Yao Wenyuan, and Wang Hongwen" Many domestic
and overseas visitors to Tian'anmen Square would
like to have their pictures taken in front of
the white marble Jinshuiqiao (Golden Water Bridges).
The bridges were named after the Golden Water
River they span. Seven bridges, each supported
by three arches, cross the Outer Golden Water
River in front of Tian'anmen, Zhongshan Park,
and the Beijing Working People's Palace of Culture.
Five one-arched bridges cross the Inner Golden
Water River inside the Forbidden City between
Wumen (Meridian Gate ) and Taihemen (Gate of Supreme
Harmony). The outer bridges, together with two
graceful Huabiao (ornamental columns) and two
stone lions nearby, set off Tian'anmen, making
it look more imposing. The inner bridges make
the spacious square look harmonious. During the
Ming and Qing dynasties, the middle one of the
seven outer bridges, which is larger than the
others was called Yuluqiao (Bridge of the Imperial
Way) and was used exclusively by the emperor.
The two bridges on each side were called Wanggongqiao
(Royal Bridges) and were used by the royal family
members. The two bridges farther out were the
Pinjiqiao (Ranking Bridges) and were used by civil
and military officials above the third rank. Those
of the fourth rank and below could use only the
outer two bridges, which were called Gongshengqiao
The Beijing nmnicipal government
launched a nine-month project to renovate Tian'anmen
Square in the heart of the capital. The reconstruction,
started in October 1998 and was completed by June
1999, in time for the grand celebrations to mark
the 50th anniversary of the founding of the People's
Republic of China on October 1,1999, improved
the worn-out pavement, public address system,
and lighting around the periphery of the world's
largest square, installing new foundations and
repairing underground pipelines.
The eastern and western Tain'anmen
Square subway stations were built. The Tian'anmen
section, part of the Fuxingmen and Bawangfen subway
project, was built to help ease excess traffic
in the downtown area of the national capital.
The western station has two levels, one with three
entrances and exits. The three-floor eastern station
has seven entrances and exits.
The National Flag-Raising
A very interesting thing to do
at Tian'anmen Square is to watch the national
flag-raising ceremony while listening to the national
anthem at sunrise. This is the perfect activity
for visitors who have come to Beijing for the
first time. The national flag guards of People's
Liberation Army (PLA) troops based at Tian'anmen
Square march out every morning and raise the flag
exactly at sunrise. Every day hundreds of thousands
of tourists from home and abroad gather in the
Square to watch this solemn ceremony. Exact times
for sunrise and sunset are posted next to the
32.6-metre-tall weighing 7 tons flagpole in red,
digital numbers. On holidays and special occasions
the Square is filled with flower arrangements
and fountains. There are people all over the Square
flying kites, as it is a popular site for local
people to go and fly their kites, which range
from simple one-piece jobs, to elaborate metres-long
Monument to the People's Heroes
The Monument to the People's
Heroes was built in memory of the martyrs who
laid down their lives for the revolutionary struggle
of the Chine~ people in the past century. It was
built in accordance with the resolution of the
First Plenary Session of the Chinese People's
Political Consultative Conference adopted on November
30,1949. Chairman Mao and other delegates laid
the corner stone for the monument on that afternoon.
The 38-metre-high monument was open on July 1,
1958. It covers an area of 3,000 square metres.
The stone tablet was from Qingdao, Shandong Province.
On the front is an inscription in the late Chairman
Mao's handwriting: "Eternal glory to the
people's heroes!" On the back is the late
Premier Zhou Enlai's message: "Eternal glory
to the people's heroes who laid down their lives
in the War of Liberation in the past three years
and the people's revolution in the past three
decades! Eternal glory to the people's heroes
who laid down their lives in the struggles agains
foreign and domestic enemies, for national independence
and for the people's freedom and happiness from
1840 onward!" At the base of the tablet are
eight pieces of huge bas- reliefs out of white
marble covering the revolutionary episodes.
Opium in the Opium War in 1840
A revolutionary movement broke
out to resist the smuggling of large quantities
of opium into China by the British imperialists.
From June 3 to 25, 1839, more than 1,185,000 kilograms
of opium was destroyed. It showed the Chinese
people's determination to struggle against imperialism
and marked the beginning of their resistance.
Jintian Village Uprising in Taiping Revolution
The Taiping Revolution was the
biggest and longest revolutionary peasant uprising
in the Chinese history. Led by Hong Xiuquan (1814-1864),
this great anti-imperialist, anti-feudal peasant
movement first broke out in Jintian Village in
Guangxi in 1851. The revolutionary flames soon
spread to six provinces and the revolutionaries
established their capital in Nanjing.
Wuchang Uprising (1911 Revolution )
The year 1911 was the one in
which the decisive battle against the Manchu Government
was fought. Late on the evening of October 10,
the revolutionary forces wrecked the cannon in
front of the office building of the governor of
both Hunan and Hubei provinces, pulled down the
royal flag and broke through the gate of the governor's
mansion. The first success of the revolution was
at Wuhan, Hubei Province. The last feudal dynasty
collapsed under the fierce attack of the revolutionary
torrent on October 10, 1911.
An anti-imperialist patriotic
movement broke out on May 4, 1919 in Beijing.
It was the turning point of the Chinese democratic
revolution. On that day, several thousand Beijing
students held a rally in front of Tian'anmen.
A parade followed in which participants held aloft
banners inscribed "No signature to the 'peace
treaty'!" and distributed the leaflets "Uphold
our sovereignty! Punish the traitors!"
A demonstration by Shanghai workers
and students on May 30, 1925 ushered in a vigorous
anti-imperialist movement. Demonstrators' banners
thundered "Down with the imperialists!"
and "Revenge Gu Zhenghong, a splendid representative
of China's workers shot down by the imperialists!'
Chiang Kal-shek (1887-1975) launched
a coup on April 12, 1927 and began slaughtering
Communists. To save the revolution and continue
struggle, the Chinese Communist Party fired the
first shot at the Kuomintang reactionaries in
the Nanchang Uprising on August 1, 1927. This
was the day the Chinese Communist Party began
to lead the revolutionary armed forces independently
against the counter-revolutionary armed forces.
Hence August 1 is the birthday of the Chinese
People's Liberation Army.
of Resistance Against Japan
Army men and civilians in the
revolutionary base areas carried out Chairman
Mao's thinking on protracted war. The Chinese
Communist Party called on the people's army to
go to the enemy's rear to launch guerrilla warfare,
mine warfare, etc. War educated the people and
the people won the war.
Crossing of the Yangtze River
This was the prelude to the liberation
of the whole country. An army one million strong
made a forced crossing of the Yangtze River on
April 21, 1949 to overthrow the Chiang Kai-shek
regime. On the right are the masses helping the
People's Liberation Army (PLA) men to make the
crossing. On the left are the liberated Nanjing
people welcoming the entrance of the PLA men.
The liberation of Nanjing, the Kuomintang capital,
heralded the liberation of the whole country.
White Marble Columns /Ornamental Column
In ancient Chinese architecture,
it is usual to find ornamental structures peripherally
placed around the main body of buildings, in such
a way that together they form an organic and harmonious
whole. Huabiao, an ornamental column erected in
front of palace, tomb, etc., is one example.
The history of huabiao, sometimes
given other names and used for specific purposes,
is quite long. It is said that it originated from
the 'slander post' (feibang mu ) of Kings Yao
and Shun (who lived in prehistoric times). King
Shun erected 'slander posts' at important crossroads
so that his people could write down their opinions
and criticism of his rule (feibang, or slander,
did not have any more pejorative sense than '
pointing out one's mistakes'). This was to demonstrate
his sincerity in accepting public opinion to help
him govern better. However, in those days, a huabiao
was but a wooden (rather than stone) post with
two planks attached to it. There is also speculation
that huabiao are in fact derived from the totem
pillars of primitive society, which served as
tokens to distinguish one clan from another.
In the Han Dynasty (206 BC-AD
220), huabiao were used as signposts or direction
indicators in the city. From a distance, they
looked like flower trees--which explains the present
name. A huabiao planted next to a mail- collecting
pavilion could help the postman to tell which
way to go. In addition, at the bridgeheads of
the more important bridges, huabiao were often
erected. The most grandiose huabiao were those
built outside the palaces and the government buildings.
Owing to the elaborate architecture of palaces,
the ornamental h uabiao were extremely finely
wrought. Thus, from functional objects, huabiao
developed into architectural ornament. The huabiao
columns in front of Tian'anmen in Beijing were
built during the reign of Emperor Yongle (1403-1424)
of the Ming Dynasty. Slender and carved in a sophisticated
manner, they rise loftily towards the sky. The
material used in these columns is white marble.
The column itself is cylindrical, with dragon-in-clouds
coiling around the column forming the design.
At the top, horizontal sculptures shaped like
flying clouds suggest that the column does reach
the sky--at least symbolically. Sitting on top
of the whole thing is a lively lion.
Beneath the ornamental columns
stands a pair of beautifully carved stone lions
in attitudes of perfect submissiveness. The lion
to the west has one paw on an embroidered ball,
with its head turned slightly to the east and
its eyes gazing westward. The lioness to the east
is playing with a cub, with her head turned to
the west and her eyes gazing eastward. That the
bold and powerful king of the beasts should be
reduced to an obedient watchdog in the presence
of the emperor is a clear manifestation of the
Son of Heaven's supreme authority.
One of salient features of Tian'anmen
is a pair of 10-metre-high white marble ornamental
columns topped by a "dish for collecting
dew.' A craved stone animal known as a "heaven-gazing
hou' (a small, lion-like legendary creature) squats
inside each dish. The purpose of these dishes
was to catch the "jade dew" imbibed
by the emperor to ensure long life. Each of the
carved ornamental columns at Tian'anmen weighs
more than 10 tons. Huabiao is also said to be
an ancient testament to the institution of xinfang
(complaint- lodging), or literally letters sent,
and visits made, to the authorities. Today , xinfang
is a reliable channel to reflect the problems
of grassroots society to both the government and
the Party; and serves a bridge between policy-makers
and common people. Handling complaints every day
would help the officials feel the pressure of
governance, and enhance social responsibility.
If more officials have the experience of dealing
with complaints things will be better. It demonstrates
the government's commitment to solving .social
problems. Some mausoleums are also guarded by
huabiao (more precisely, shendaozhu) to add to
the solemnity of the place and inspire awe.
Chairman Mao Memorial
South of the Monument to the
People's Heroes is Chairman Mso Memorial Hall.
The foyer houses a seated figure of Chairman Mao
in white marble. Behind it is a 7- by 24-metre
needlepoint woollen tapestry "Such a beauty
is our motherland " In the second room, Chairman
Mao's remains recline in a crystal coffin, with
the red flag of the Communist Party of China draped
over his body. Construction of the building began
in November 1976 and was completed in 1977. Currently,
the remains of the late Chairman Mao are mechanically
raised from a freezer for viewing, then lowered
again at night.
The sculpture groups are 6 to
8 metres high and 7 to 15 metres long. The two
on the north side are designed on the theme "Great
Contributions," representing what the Chinese
people achieved in the last half century under
the leadership of Chairman Mao. Those on the south
side have as their theme "Carry Out Chairman
Mao's Behest," expressing the Chinese people's
determination to act on his behest and carry the
cause of our socialist revolution through to the
The Great Hall of the People
Construction of the Great Hall
of the People started in October 1958 and was
completed by the end of August 1959, taking ten
It has a total floor space of
171,800 square metres, 20,000 square metres more
than that of the Palace Museum in the neighbourhood.
It is 206 metres long and 336 metres wide. Its
highest point is 46.5 metres from the ground.
It consists of three major sections:
in the north is the Banquet Hall that accommodates
5,000 people; in the centre is the Grand Auditorium
with a seating capacity of 10,000; offices of
the Standing Committee of the National People's
Congress are in the south. There are more than
300 reception rooms and conference halls of various
sizes. Thirty-four reception rooms are furnished
by and named after various provinces, municipalities,
autonomous regions and special administrative
regions. Each of the rooms is featured by its
The central foyer is for the
people attending meetings to take a rest during
intervals. The floor is paved with natural marble
and the 20 pillars are made of white marble. Each
crystal glass chandelier weighs 1.2 tons.
The auditorium is used for important
occasions such as sessions of the National People's
Congress, the Party Congress and mass political
rallies to support the just struggle of the people
of other countries. The massive hall is 76 metres
in width, 60 metres in length and 32 metres in
height, with a balcony and a gallery. There are
3,600 seats on the ground floor, 3,500 on the
balcony and 2,500 on the gallery. The stage can
hold a presidium of 300 to 500 people. The total
seating capacity is ten thousand. It is also used
for festive celebrations and grand stage shows.
The proscenium can be converted
into an orchestra pit by removing the floor boards.
The seats on the ground floor are equipped with
earphones, through which one can hear a simultaneous
translation of a speech in any one of 12 different
languages. Every two seats share a loudspeaker
and every four seats a microphone for extemporaneous
speeches. On the ceiling are 500 starlights with
an enormous red star in the centre. Seventy light
beams radiate in all directions enclosed by a
ring of 40 sunflower petals, which in turn is
skirted by three layers of hidden lights in the
form of expanding waves. This beautiful pattern
symbolizes the close unity of the people of the
whole country around the Party in their forward
march from victory to victory. The ones that have
no light are ventilation holes.
The auditorium has three main
features: people can evacuate rapidly through
its 32 doors; the fan-shape hall provides a good
view of the presidium from any angle; the acoustics
is very good. Built-in lighting equipment for
filming documentaries is set in a crescent shape
facing the stage.
The balcony is for non-voting
deputies and foreign envoys. A loudspeaker is
installed at the back of each seat on the balcony
and the gallery. Simultaneous translation in different
languages is provided for by block allocation
of seats. The volume control is installed on the
left arm of the seat.
China National Museum
Along the east side of Tian'anmen
Square is a cream building with green and yellow
eaves, standing 33 metres high; the north wing
used to house the Museum of the Chinese Revolution
and the south wing housed the Museum of Chinese
History. The China National Museum was officially
opened on February 28, 2003 following a merger
of the Museum of Chinese History and the Museum
of the Chinese Revolution at Tian'anmen Square.
The China National Museum will correspond to Cbina's
international status and its long history and
splendid ancient civilization. Plans to expand
the museum have been finalized and work will be
finished before 2008 Olympic Games. The floor
space of the entire building will be expanded
from 65,000 square metres to 150,000 square metres.
The former Museum of Chinese History was possessed
of more than 400,000 pieces in its collection,
and the former Museum of the Chinese Revolution
had about 150,000. The combined total is too few
for a museum of international standard. The museum
will seek ways to enrich the collection, and by
2008 the relics in the museum will reach 1 million.
The entire building was built in 1959 to mark
the 10th anniversary of the founding of the People's
Republic of China.
South-Facing Gate or Front
This is the South-Facing Gate
or Front Gate, a 42-metre-high brick structure.
It is located at Qianmen (Front Gate), south of
Tian'anmen (Gate of Heavenly Peace) Square. It
is one of the few remaining gates of the city
wall. It was built in 1421 in the early Ming Dynasty
and renovated in 1977. In the old days, watchtowers
placed at regular intervals around the perimeter
guarded the wall. The double gate system played
an important role in repulsing enemy attacks.
If the first gate were breached, the enemy would
still find themselves outside the city wall and
would be fired upon from the tower over the inner
gate. The gate is a fortress-like structure, which
was built for the city's defence. It has 94 windows
from which archers could shoot arrows. The tower
was burned down several times before it was reconstructed
in 1914. As a national relic to be protected,
it has been renovated according to the 1914 plan.
The tourist can visit exhibitions in the three-storey
tower. The first storey describes the history
of the tower and the second deals with the city
gates of ancient Beijing. There are also displays
of paintings and the four treasures of study in
ancient China--the writing brushes, ink sticks,
ink slabs and paper. The tower was opened to the
public on January 21st, 1990, adding another scenic
spot in Beijing. The Front Gate was the pass the
emperor used for travel to the Temple of Heaven
for worshipping ceremonies. Only the imperial
sedans and carriages were allowed to use the gate.
while funeral processions and carriages were forbidden
to pass here.
The Arrow Castle was built in
1439. The castle has 82 windows from which archers
could shoot arrows. It was destroyed by fire in
1780 and 1849 respectively, but was reconstructed
twice. In 1900, the gate was sabotaged and the
Eight-Power Allied Forces burnt down the castle.
They were revamped according to their original
design. In 1916, the enceinte of a city gate was
demonised. On February 3, 1949, Beiping (today's
Beijing) was liberated peacefully, the People's
Liberation Army men held the city entrance ceremony
at the gate. The gate was reinforced in 1952,
and the castle was revamped in 1976; in 1977 the
gate was repaired again, thus the gate and the
castle have taken on a completely new look.
Working People's Palace of
The Working People's Palace of
Culture lies to the east of Tian'anmen. This place
used to be the Ancestral Temple in the Ming (1368-1644)
and Qing (1644-1911) dynasties. Now it has become
a place where working people in Beijing come to
enjoy cultural performances.
The Chinese Harmonious Chimes
(Zhonghua He Zhong) were installed at the Working
People's Palace of Culture on December 27, 1999.
The chimes, built and installed in three arrays,
2.8 metres high, 21 metres wide and weighing 17
tons, are the world's largest and feature 108
chimes of various sizes. The upper 34 Niu hells
represent the 31 provinces, autonomous regions
and municipalities on the Chinese mainland and
Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan; the middle array
is made up of 56 Yong hells standing for the 56
ethnic groups in China; the lower layer are 18
Bo hells, with the middle 16 pieces for the 16
historical periods of China and the two on each
side for peace and development. They were also
used during the gala celebrating the year 2000.
Zhongshan (Dr Sun Yat-sen)
The park was formerly the Altar
of Land and Grain built in 1420. It was opened
as a park in 1914 and its name was changed to
Zhongshan Park in 1928 in memory of Dr Sun Yat-sen
(1866-1925), a great pioneer of the Chinese democratic
revolution. Since 1949, the park has taken on
a new look after extensive renovations. Cypress,
flowers, goldfish, rockeries, ponds and pavilions
present a serene and attractive atmosphere. Many
large celebrations and meetings for peace and
friendship are held there. The bronze statue of
Dr Sun Yat-sen, three metres high, stands on a
two-metre-high foundation in Zhongshan Park. It
depicts Dr Sun Yat-sen in old age. With the support
of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist
Party, the project was proposed by a group of
54 members of the Beijing Committee of the Chinese
People's Political consultative Conference (CPPCC*).
Zeng Zhushao, a professor of the Central Academy
of Fine Arts and also a member of the CPPCC Beijing
Committee designed the statue.
The project was completed by
November 12, 1986, the 120th birthday anniversary
of the great forerunner of the Chinese democratic
The renovation of the Zhongshan
Concert Hall started in July 1997 and was completed
in April 1999 lasting one year and five months
and opened to the public on April 26, 1999. The
concert hall is gifted with first-class construction
norms according to world standards for professional
concert halls. It is located in Zhongshan Park
(Dr Sun Yat-sen Park, north of Tian'anmen Square,
one of Beijing's former imperial gardens and one
of the most beautiful parks in the city). It is
the first Chinese concert hall to adopt a digital
audio- frequency processor. The ups and downs
of the concert hall symbolize the development
of Beijing's culture. When the People's Republic
of China took over the concert hall on January
31, 1949, it was nothing more than an outdoor
stage encircled by wires. Later the Beijing municipal
government built a theatre there. It attracted
many famous Chinese musicians and artists. By
1996, it was only used for showing films. The
renovation cost more than 80 million yuan (US
$ 9.6 million).
The renovated Zhongshan Concert
Hall covers an area of 4,000 square metres, with
a total floor space of 11,835 square metres. Its
outer appearance looks like a giant fan-shape
with a seating capacity of 1,400. Also there are
5 VIP boxes in the hall.
China National Theatre
Construction of China Grand National
Theatre officially started on December 12, 2001
after four years preparation and will be completed
in 2005. Some revisions have been made to the
original plan to reduce costs and construction
area. The current estimated cost of the project
is 2. 688 billion yuan (US $ 325 million), substantially
less than the original 3 billion yuan (US $ 362
million). The reduction in cost comes mainly from
the cancellation of the complex's theatre, which
will leave it with a 2,500-seat opera house, mainly
receiving world-renowned operas and ballet companies;
a 2,000-seat concert hall, the site of concerts
of symphony and traditional Chinese music; a 1,200-seat
theatre for modern drama, Peking Opera and other
local Chinese operas and art galleries. Total
construction area has been cut from the original
180,000 square metres to 149,500 square metres,
because the 30,000 square metre parking lot, originally
included in the plan, is going to be built separately.
This new underground parking lot will provide
the entire Tian'anmen Square area with its first
major parking lot. When the parking lot is finished,
it will be able to accommodate 1,000 vehicles
and 1,400 bicycles. Parking will no longer be
a headache when there are major activities in
Located on the west side of the
Great Hall of the People in downtown Beijing,
the theatre will be built to a modernistic design
by French architect Paul Andreu. Although the
theatre will not be the world's most luxurious,
will present "some pleasant surprises:"
some of the world's best performance facilities.
The entire design insisted on
the creation theme of "a theatre within the
city and a city within the theatre."
The theatre will be China's largest,
as well as its first comprehensive and multi-functional
theatre. The design should bring home at sight
that it is a theatre, nothing else, with Chinese
characteristics and in harmony with the other
buildings in Tian'anmen Square. The building's
height shall not exceed 45 metres, keeping it
below the height of the Great Hall of the People.