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Home >> China City Guide >> Beijing >> Tian'anmen Square - Beijing travel guide and tour

Principal Sites Around Tian'anmen

Tian'anmen Square
Tian'anmen Square, Beijing China
Tian'anmen Square, Beijing China

Tian'anmen (Gate of Heavenly Peace)

The Rostrum of Tian'anmen was opened to the public for the first time in its history in 1988. From the rostrum, the late Chairman Mao Zedong proclaimed the founding of the People's Republic of China on October 1, 1949, and since then Tian'anmen has been the symbol of the new China.

In modem Chinese history, several large mass demonstrations have taken place here. The most famous was on May 4, 1919, when more than 3,000 students from Beijing schools and universities came to the square to demonstrate against imperialism and the role of the warlords. The event was a landmark in modem Chinese history.

The structure was first named Chengtianmen (Gate of Power Endowed from Heaven or Gate of Heavenly Succession) when it was built in 1417 as the main entrance of the former Imperial Palace. In 1456 the wooden structure burned down after it was struck by lightning. In 1644, the Manchus defeated Li Zicheng (1606-1645), leader of a peasant uprising; the latter set a fire to the building before running away from the city. The building was enlarged when it was rebuilt for the second time in 1651, and renamed Tian'anmen. This is the structure, which still stands today. The nine-room-wide and five-room-long wooden gate tower was built to reflect the highly-exalted status of the emperor.

Located to the north of Tian'anmen Square, Tian'anmen is a building which has red stonewalls, a wooden roof and five entrances--the largest, in the middle, lea&s to the Forbidden City. The building is surrounded by a moat, Jinshui (Golden Water), which was designed to guard the Imperial Palace. Five marble bridges, the Golden Water Bridges, lead to the five passages of the gate. Two ornamental columns stand in front of the whole complex.

The gate and the square were out of bounds to the public in imperial times. The emperor alone was entitled to pass through the central passage. Before leaving on a journey he would make a sacrifice in front of the gate. At other times imperial edicts were sent down, in a gilded box shaped like a phoenix, to officials kneeling below. Hence the expression: "the Imperial Orders Given by the Gilded Phoenix" The edict was then taken to the Ministry of Rites where copies were made for dispatch to the whole country. It was also the place for the emperor to review royal armies and receive prisoners of war.

Tian'anmen (Gate of Heavenly Peace) is not only the site of the most important gatherings since the founding of the People's Republic of China, but also one of the most valuable historical sites in China. Parades take place here on important days, such as the rallies on May 1 International Labour Day and October 1 (National Day). Before each parade the building is repainted and generally tidied up. The whole tower roof was replaced as part of a large-scale restoration in 1984, following the original line and shape. The balcony is 34.7 metres high, 62.77 metres long and 27.25 metres wide. It can hold 20,000 guests. There are 67 steps leading to the top of the Rostrum of Tian'anmen Gate.

Tian'anmen Square

Tiananmen was the front gate of Forbidden City - the imperial palace during the Ming and Qing dynasties. Measuring 880 meters in length and 500 meters in width, Tian'anmen Square is located in the center of Beijing; military parade takes place here on China's National Day. The square has witnessed the Chinese people's struggle against foreign aggression and reactionary rule at home. In 1919, the May 4th Movement broke out in Beijing. Students and residents staged a patriotic demonstration in the square. In 1935, students in Beijing launched the December 9th Movement against the Japanese aggression and Chiang Kai-shek's policy of non-resistance. They held a demonstration in the square. On April 5,1976, lots of people gathered here to commemorate Zbou Enlai (1898-1976) and oppose the "Gang of Four (referring to Jiang Qing, Zhang Chunqiao, Yao Wenyuan, and Wang Hongwen" Many domestic and overseas visitors to Tian'anmen Square would like to have their pictures taken in front of the white marble Jinshuiqiao (Golden Water Bridges). The bridges were named after the Golden Water River they span. Seven bridges, each supported by three arches, cross the Outer Golden Water River in front of Tian'anmen, Zhongshan Park, and the Beijing Working People's Palace of Culture. Five one-arched bridges cross the Inner Golden Water River inside the Forbidden City between Wumen (Meridian Gate ) and Taihemen (Gate of Supreme Harmony). The outer bridges, together with two graceful Huabiao (ornamental columns) and two stone lions nearby, set off Tian'anmen, making it look more imposing. The inner bridges make the spacious square look harmonious. During the Ming and Qing dynasties, the middle one of the seven outer bridges, which is larger than the others was called Yuluqiao (Bridge of the Imperial Way) and was used exclusively by the emperor. The two bridges on each side were called Wanggongqiao (Royal Bridges) and were used by the royal family members. The two bridges farther out were the Pinjiqiao (Ranking Bridges) and were used by civil and military officials above the third rank. Those of the fourth rank and below could use only the outer two bridges, which were called Gongshengqiao (Public Bridges).

The Beijing nmnicipal government launched a nine-month project to renovate Tian'anmen Square in the heart of the capital. The reconstruction, started in October 1998 and was completed by June 1999, in time for the grand celebrations to mark the 50th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China on October 1,1999, improved the worn-out pavement, public address system, and lighting around the periphery of the world's largest square, installing new foundations and repairing underground pipelines.

The eastern and western Tain'anmen Square subway stations were built. The Tian'anmen section, part of the Fuxingmen and Bawangfen subway project, was built to help ease excess traffic in the downtown area of the national capital. The western station has two levels, one with three entrances and exits. The three-floor eastern station has seven entrances and exits.

The National Flag-Raising Ceremony

A very interesting thing to do at Tian'anmen Square is to watch the national flag-raising ceremony while listening to the national anthem at sunrise. This is the perfect activity for visitors who have come to Beijing for the first time. The national flag guards of People's Liberation Army (PLA) troops based at Tian'anmen Square march out every morning and raise the flag exactly at sunrise. Every day hundreds of thousands of tourists from home and abroad gather in the Square to watch this solemn ceremony. Exact times for sunrise and sunset are posted next to the 32.6-metre-tall weighing 7 tons flagpole in red, digital numbers. On holidays and special occasions the Square is filled with flower arrangements and fountains. There are people all over the Square flying kites, as it is a popular site for local people to go and fly their kites, which range from simple one-piece jobs, to elaborate metres-long dragons.

Monument to the People's Heroes

The Monument to the People's Heroes was built in memory of the martyrs who laid down their lives for the revolutionary struggle of the Chine~ people in the past century. It was built in accordance with the resolution of the First Plenary Session of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference adopted on November 30,1949. Chairman Mao and other delegates laid the corner stone for the monument on that afternoon. The 38-metre-high monument was open on July 1, 1958. It covers an area of 3,000 square metres. The stone tablet was from Qingdao, Shandong Province. On the front is an inscription in the late Chairman Mao's handwriting: "Eternal glory to the people's heroes!" On the back is the late Premier Zhou Enlai's message: "Eternal glory to the people's heroes who laid down their lives in the War of Liberation in the past three years and the people's revolution in the past three decades! Eternal glory to the people's heroes who laid down their lives in the struggles agains foreign and domestic enemies, for national independence and for the people's freedom and happiness from 1840 onward!" At the base of the tablet are eight pieces of huge bas- reliefs out of white marble covering the revolutionary episodes.

Burning Opium in the Opium War in 1840

A revolutionary movement broke out to resist the smuggling of large quantities of opium into China by the British imperialists. From June 3 to 25, 1839, more than 1,185,000 kilograms of opium was destroyed. It showed the Chinese people's determination to struggle against imperialism and marked the beginning of their resistance.

The Jintian Village Uprising in Taiping Revolution

The Taiping Revolution was the biggest and longest revolutionary peasant uprising in the Chinese history. Led by Hong Xiuquan (1814-1864), this great anti-imperialist, anti-feudal peasant movement first broke out in Jintian Village in Guangxi in 1851. The revolutionary flames soon spread to six provinces and the revolutionaries established their capital in Nanjing.

The Wuchang Uprising (1911 Revolution )

The year 1911 was the one in which the decisive battle against the Manchu Government was fought. Late on the evening of October 10, the revolutionary forces wrecked the cannon in front of the office building of the governor of both Hunan and Hubei provinces, pulled down the royal flag and broke through the gate of the governor's mansion. The first success of the revolution was at Wuhan, Hubei Province. The last feudal dynasty collapsed under the fierce attack of the revolutionary torrent on October 10, 1911.

May 4th Movement

An anti-imperialist patriotic movement broke out on May 4, 1919 in Beijing. It was the turning point of the Chinese democratic revolution. On that day, several thousand Beijing students held a rally in front of Tian'anmen. A parade followed in which participants held aloft banners inscribed "No signature to the 'peace treaty'!" and distributed the leaflets "Uphold our sovereignty! Punish the traitors!"

May 30th Movement

A demonstration by Shanghai workers and students on May 30, 1925 ushered in a vigorous anti-imperialist movement. Demonstrators' banners thundered "Down with the imperialists!" and "Revenge Gu Zhenghong, a splendid representative of China's workers shot down by the imperialists!'

Nanchang Uprising

Chiang Kal-shek (1887-1975) launched a coup on April 12, 1927 and began slaughtering Communists. To save the revolution and continue struggle, the Chinese Communist Party fired the first shot at the Kuomintang reactionaries in the Nanchang Uprising on August 1, 1927. This was the day the Chinese Communist Party began to lead the revolutionary armed forces independently against the counter-revolutionary armed forces. Hence August 1 is the birthday of the Chinese People's Liberation Army.

War of Resistance Against Japan

Army men and civilians in the revolutionary base areas carried out Chairman Mao's thinking on protracted war. The Chinese Communist Party called on the people's army to go to the enemy's rear to launch guerrilla warfare, mine warfare, etc. War educated the people and the people won the war.

Successful Crossing of the Yangtze River

This was the prelude to the liberation of the whole country. An army one million strong made a forced crossing of the Yangtze River on April 21, 1949 to overthrow the Chiang Kai-shek regime. On the right are the masses helping the People's Liberation Army (PLA) men to make the crossing. On the left are the liberated Nanjing people welcoming the entrance of the PLA men. The liberation of Nanjing, the Kuomintang capital, heralded the liberation of the whole country.

Huabiao--Scuipted White Marble Columns /Ornamental Column

In ancient Chinese architecture, it is usual to find ornamental structures peripherally placed around the main body of buildings, in such a way that together they form an organic and harmonious whole. Huabiao, an ornamental column erected in front of palace, tomb, etc., is one example.

The history of huabiao, sometimes given other names and used for specific purposes, is quite long. It is said that it originated from the 'slander post' (feibang mu ) of Kings Yao and Shun (who lived in prehistoric times). King Shun erected 'slander posts' at important crossroads so that his people could write down their opinions and criticism of his rule (feibang, or slander, did not have any more pejorative sense than ' pointing out one's mistakes'). This was to demonstrate his sincerity in accepting public opinion to help him govern better. However, in those days, a huabiao was but a wooden (rather than stone) post with two planks attached to it. There is also speculation that huabiao are in fact derived from the totem pillars of primitive society, which served as tokens to distinguish one clan from another.

In the Han Dynasty (206 BC-AD 220), huabiao were used as signposts or direction indicators in the city. From a distance, they looked like flower trees--which explains the present name. A huabiao planted next to a mail- collecting pavilion could help the postman to tell which way to go. In addition, at the bridgeheads of the more important bridges, huabiao were often erected. The most grandiose huabiao were those built outside the palaces and the government buildings. Owing to the elaborate architecture of palaces, the ornamental h uabiao were extremely finely wrought. Thus, from functional objects, huabiao developed into architectural ornament. The huabiao columns in front of Tian'anmen in Beijing were built during the reign of Emperor Yongle (1403-1424) of the Ming Dynasty. Slender and carved in a sophisticated manner, they rise loftily towards the sky. The material used in these columns is white marble. The column itself is cylindrical, with dragon-in-clouds coiling around the column forming the design. At the top, horizontal sculptures shaped like flying clouds suggest that the column does reach the sky--at least symbolically. Sitting on top of the whole thing is a lively lion.

Beneath the ornamental columns stands a pair of beautifully carved stone lions in attitudes of perfect submissiveness. The lion to the west has one paw on an embroidered ball, with its head turned slightly to the east and its eyes gazing westward. The lioness to the east is playing with a cub, with her head turned to the west and her eyes gazing eastward. That the bold and powerful king of the beasts should be reduced to an obedient watchdog in the presence of the emperor is a clear manifestation of the Son of Heaven's supreme authority.

One of salient features of Tian'anmen is a pair of 10-metre-high white marble ornamental columns topped by a "dish for collecting dew.' A craved stone animal known as a "heaven-gazing hou' (a small, lion-like legendary creature) squats inside each dish. The purpose of these dishes was to catch the "jade dew" imbibed by the emperor to ensure long life. Each of the carved ornamental columns at Tian'anmen weighs more than 10 tons. Huabiao is also said to be an ancient testament to the institution of xinfang (complaint- lodging), or literally letters sent, and visits made, to the authorities. Today , xinfang is a reliable channel to reflect the problems of grassroots society to both the government and the Party; and serves a bridge between policy-makers and common people. Handling complaints every day would help the officials feel the pressure of governance, and enhance social responsibility. If more officials have the experience of dealing with complaints things will be better. It demonstrates the government's commitment to solving .social problems. Some mausoleums are also guarded by huabiao (more precisely, shendaozhu) to add to the solemnity of the place and inspire awe.

Chairman Mao Memorial Hall

South of the Monument to the People's Heroes is Chairman Mso Memorial Hall. The foyer houses a seated figure of Chairman Mao in white marble. Behind it is a 7- by 24-metre needlepoint woollen tapestry "Such a beauty is our motherland " In the second room, Chairman Mao's remains recline in a crystal coffin, with the red flag of the Communist Party of China draped over his body. Construction of the building began in November 1976 and was completed in 1977. Currently, the remains of the late Chairman Mao are mechanically raised from a freezer for viewing, then lowered again at night.

Sculptures

The sculpture groups are 6 to 8 metres high and 7 to 15 metres long. The two on the north side are designed on the theme "Great Contributions," representing what the Chinese people achieved in the last half century under the leadership of Chairman Mao. Those on the south side have as their theme "Carry Out Chairman Mao's Behest," expressing the Chinese people's determination to act on his behest and carry the cause of our socialist revolution through to the end.

The Great Hall of the People

Construction of the Great Hall of the People started in October 1958 and was completed by the end of August 1959, taking ten months altogether.

It has a total floor space of 171,800 square metres, 20,000 square metres more than that of the Palace Museum in the neighbourhood. It is 206 metres long and 336 metres wide. Its highest point is 46.5 metres from the ground.

It consists of three major sections: in the north is the Banquet Hall that accommodates 5,000 people; in the centre is the Grand Auditorium with a seating capacity of 10,000; offices of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress are in the south. There are more than 300 reception rooms and conference halls of various sizes. Thirty-four reception rooms are furnished by and named after various provinces, municipalities, autonomous regions and special administrative regions. Each of the rooms is featured by its local style.

The central foyer is for the people attending meetings to take a rest during intervals. The floor is paved with natural marble and the 20 pillars are made of white marble. Each crystal glass chandelier weighs 1.2 tons.

The 10,O00-Seat Auditorium

The auditorium is used for important occasions such as sessions of the National People's Congress, the Party Congress and mass political rallies to support the just struggle of the people of other countries. The massive hall is 76 metres in width, 60 metres in length and 32 metres in height, with a balcony and a gallery. There are 3,600 seats on the ground floor, 3,500 on the balcony and 2,500 on the gallery. The stage can hold a presidium of 300 to 500 people. The total seating capacity is ten thousand. It is also used for festive celebrations and grand stage shows.

The proscenium can be converted into an orchestra pit by removing the floor boards. The seats on the ground floor are equipped with earphones, through which one can hear a simultaneous translation of a speech in any one of 12 different languages. Every two seats share a loudspeaker and every four seats a microphone for extemporaneous speeches. On the ceiling are 500 starlights with an enormous red star in the centre. Seventy light beams radiate in all directions enclosed by a ring of 40 sunflower petals, which in turn is skirted by three layers of hidden lights in the form of expanding waves. This beautiful pattern symbolizes the close unity of the people of the whole country around the Party in their forward march from victory to victory. The ones that have no light are ventilation holes.

The auditorium has three main features: people can evacuate rapidly through its 32 doors; the fan-shape hall provides a good view of the presidium from any angle; the acoustics is very good. Built-in lighting equipment for filming documentaries is set in a crescent shape facing the stage.

Balcony

The balcony is for non-voting deputies and foreign envoys. A loudspeaker is installed at the back of each seat on the balcony and the gallery. Simultaneous translation in different languages is provided for by block allocation of seats. The volume control is installed on the left arm of the seat.

China National Museum

Along the east side of Tian'anmen Square is a cream building with green and yellow eaves, standing 33 metres high; the north wing used to house the Museum of the Chinese Revolution and the south wing housed the Museum of Chinese History. The China National Museum was officially opened on February 28, 2003 following a merger of the Museum of Chinese History and the Museum of the Chinese Revolution at Tian'anmen Square. The China National Museum will correspond to Cbina's international status and its long history and splendid ancient civilization. Plans to expand the museum have been finalized and work will be finished before 2008 Olympic Games. The floor space of the entire building will be expanded from 65,000 square metres to 150,000 square metres. The former Museum of Chinese History was possessed of more than 400,000 pieces in its collection, and the former Museum of the Chinese Revolution had about 150,000. The combined total is too few for a museum of international standard. The museum will seek ways to enrich the collection, and by 2008 the relics in the museum will reach 1 million. The entire building was built in 1959 to mark the 10th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China.

South-Facing Gate or Front Gate

This is the South-Facing Gate or Front Gate, a 42-metre-high brick structure. It is located at Qianmen (Front Gate), south of Tian'anmen (Gate of Heavenly Peace) Square. It is one of the few remaining gates of the city wall. It was built in 1421 in the early Ming Dynasty and renovated in 1977. In the old days, watchtowers placed at regular intervals around the perimeter guarded the wall. The double gate system played an important role in repulsing enemy attacks. If the first gate were breached, the enemy would still find themselves outside the city wall and would be fired upon from the tower over the inner gate. The gate is a fortress-like structure, which was built for the city's defence. It has 94 windows from which archers could shoot arrows. The tower was burned down several times before it was reconstructed in 1914. As a national relic to be protected, it has been renovated according to the 1914 plan. The tourist can visit exhibitions in the three-storey tower. The first storey describes the history of the tower and the second deals with the city gates of ancient Beijing. There are also displays of paintings and the four treasures of study in ancient China--the writing brushes, ink sticks, ink slabs and paper. The tower was opened to the public on January 21st, 1990, adding another scenic spot in Beijing. The Front Gate was the pass the emperor used for travel to the Temple of Heaven for worshipping ceremonies. Only the imperial sedans and carriages were allowed to use the gate. while funeral processions and carriages were forbidden to pass here.

The Arrow Castle was built in 1439. The castle has 82 windows from which archers could shoot arrows. It was destroyed by fire in 1780 and 1849 respectively, but was reconstructed twice. In 1900, the gate was sabotaged and the Eight-Power Allied Forces burnt down the castle. They were revamped according to their original design. In 1916, the enceinte of a city gate was demonised. On February 3, 1949, Beiping (today's Beijing) was liberated peacefully, the People's Liberation Army men held the city entrance ceremony at the gate. The gate was reinforced in 1952, and the castle was revamped in 1976; in 1977 the gate was repaired again, thus the gate and the castle have taken on a completely new look.

Working People's Palace of Culture

The Working People's Palace of Culture lies to the east of Tian'anmen. This place used to be the Ancestral Temple in the Ming (1368-1644) and Qing (1644-1911) dynasties. Now it has become a place where working people in Beijing come to enjoy cultural performances.

The Chinese Harmonious Chimes (Zhonghua He Zhong) were installed at the Working People's Palace of Culture on December 27, 1999. The chimes, built and installed in three arrays, 2.8 metres high, 21 metres wide and weighing 17 tons, are the world's largest and feature 108 chimes of various sizes. The upper 34 Niu hells represent the 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities on the Chinese mainland and Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan; the middle array is made up of 56 Yong hells standing for the 56 ethnic groups in China; the lower layer are 18 Bo hells, with the middle 16 pieces for the 16 historical periods of China and the two on each side for peace and development. They were also used during the gala celebrating the year 2000.

Zhongshan (Dr Sun Yat-sen) Park

The park was formerly the Altar of Land and Grain built in 1420. It was opened as a park in 1914 and its name was changed to Zhongshan Park in 1928 in memory of Dr Sun Yat-sen (1866-1925), a great pioneer of the Chinese democratic revolution. Since 1949, the park has taken on a new look after extensive renovations. Cypress, flowers, goldfish, rockeries, ponds and pavilions present a serene and attractive atmosphere. Many large celebrations and meetings for peace and friendship are held there. The bronze statue of Dr Sun Yat-sen, three metres high, stands on a two-metre-high foundation in Zhongshan Park. It depicts Dr Sun Yat-sen in old age. With the support of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party, the project was proposed by a group of 54 members of the Beijing Committee of the Chinese People's Political consultative Conference (CPPCC*). Zeng Zhushao, a professor of the Central Academy of Fine Arts and also a member of the CPPCC Beijing Committee designed the statue.

The project was completed by November 12, 1986, the 120th birthday anniversary of the great forerunner of the Chinese democratic revolution.

Zhongshan Concert Hall

The renovation of the Zhongshan Concert Hall started in July 1997 and was completed in April 1999 lasting one year and five months and opened to the public on April 26, 1999. The concert hall is gifted with first-class construction norms according to world standards for professional concert halls. It is located in Zhongshan Park (Dr Sun Yat-sen Park, north of Tian'anmen Square, one of Beijing's former imperial gardens and one of the most beautiful parks in the city). It is the first Chinese concert hall to adopt a digital audio- frequency processor. The ups and downs of the concert hall symbolize the development of Beijing's culture. When the People's Republic of China took over the concert hall on January 31, 1949, it was nothing more than an outdoor stage encircled by wires. Later the Beijing municipal government built a theatre there. It attracted many famous Chinese musicians and artists. By 1996, it was only used for showing films. The renovation cost more than 80 million yuan (US $ 9.6 million).

The renovated Zhongshan Concert Hall covers an area of 4,000 square metres, with a total floor space of 11,835 square metres. Its outer appearance looks like a giant fan-shape with a seating capacity of 1,400. Also there are 5 VIP boxes in the hall.

China National Theatre

Construction of China Grand National Theatre officially started on December 12, 2001 after four years preparation and will be completed in 2005. Some revisions have been made to the original plan to reduce costs and construction area. The current estimated cost of the project is 2. 688 billion yuan (US $ 325 million), substantially less than the original 3 billion yuan (US $ 362 million). The reduction in cost comes mainly from the cancellation of the complex's theatre, which will leave it with a 2,500-seat opera house, mainly receiving world-renowned operas and ballet companies; a 2,000-seat concert hall, the site of concerts of symphony and traditional Chinese music; a 1,200-seat theatre for modern drama, Peking Opera and other local Chinese operas and art galleries. Total construction area has been cut from the original 180,000 square metres to 149,500 square metres, because the 30,000 square metre parking lot, originally included in the plan, is going to be built separately. This new underground parking lot will provide the entire Tian'anmen Square area with its first major parking lot. When the parking lot is finished, it will be able to accommodate 1,000 vehicles and 1,400 bicycles. Parking will no longer be a headache when there are major activities in the square.

Located on the west side of the Great Hall of the People in downtown Beijing, the theatre will be built to a modernistic design by French architect Paul Andreu. Although the theatre will not be the world's most luxurious, will present "some pleasant surprises:" some of the world's best performance facilities.

The entire design insisted on the creation theme of "a theatre within the city and a city within the theatre."

The theatre will be China's largest, as well as its first comprehensive and multi-functional theatre. The design should bring home at sight that it is a theatre, nothing else, with Chinese characteristics and in harmony with the other buildings in Tian'anmen Square. The building's height shall not exceed 45 metres, keeping it below the height of the Great Hall of the People.

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