Nanjing, an ancient metropolis
of six different dynasties, is a city with mountains,
waters and green trees.
The ancestors of Nanjingers can be
dated back to the apemen who lived in caves at
Tangshan Hill hundreds of thousands of years ago.
About 5000 to 6000 years ago some people came
to the tableland by waters and made a living by
fishing, hunting or farming.
Nanjing took shape at the confluence
of the Changjiang (Yangtse) and Qinhuaihe rivers.
Goujian, King of Yue State, had a city built by
the Qinhuaihe and named it Yuecheng 2500 years
ago. Later Chu State had a city called Jinling
erected at the foot of Qingliangshan Hill. Yuecheng
and Jinling were the embryonic forms of Nanjing.
The Yangtse River rushes from southwest
towards the Stone Hill which is strategically
located and difficult of access. Sun Quan, King
of State Wu, had his military fortress built here
with the giant rocks by the river as the wall
and named it the Stone City, which is also called
the Ghost Face City because of its grotesque shape.
Ever since then, Jinling, Shitou (Stone) have
been the ancient aliases of Nanjing.
The Six Dynasties (from beginning
of the 3rd century to the end of the 6th century)
were the prime period of Nanjing. After the downfall
of Western Jin, North China was reigned by chieftains
of some nomads. Many aristocrats, men of letters,
craftsmen thronged to the south, promoting the
development of culture, economy, and crafts and
technology. And Nanjing, the biggest city of the
time became a new cultural center in ancient China.
In modern Nanjing there are some 40
universities and colleges and more than 300 scientific
research institutes, several art troupes and a
theatre for kunqu opera, from which about 100
modern operas in China derived. Nanjing Library
is the third biggest library in China in terms
of its collection. The Nanjing Museum boasts a
rich collection of arts and crafts.
The modern new Nanjing is the economic
and cultural center in the lower reaches of the