The Shaanxi History Museum is
located 4 kilometers south of Xi'an, with the
Big Wild Goose Pagoda to the east. It was originally
inside the Museum of Stone Tablets. Later, because
of its great amount of relics and the small exhibition
rooms in the Museum of Stone Tablets, which were
not big enough to exhibit them, the Museum was
moved to the present place. It was established
under the personal concern of former Permier Zhou
Enlai and officially opened to public in 1991.
The Museum is an architectural complex
in the Tang Dynasty style, covering an area of
65,000 square meters and with a construction area
of about 60,000 square meters. The whole museum
was built in a closed style with modern management.
It is the second largest museum next to the Imperial
Palace Museum, which is the largest museum in
China. In order to keep the relics safe, a set
of closed facilities of prevention and auti-theft
system has been installed. The closed circuit
television system was installed to monitor every
corner to the museum and a set of infrared detection
system has been installed to control every square
centimeter of the exhibition of the halls. In
case when any anomalous event occurs, video copiers
will truly get scenes recorded without delay.
The Shaanxi History Museum collects
a largest amount of tomb frescoes of Tang Dynasty.
For better protection and preservation of these
rare relics, the store chambers were so designed
that they were built on rails and enclosed on
all sides, with constant temperature and moisture
but without ultraviolet radiation. The mural paintings
are hung in charmbers that run on rail. Press
a button, the chambers will silde out and back
gently. Such design is indeed ingenious.
It has a collection of 370,000 pieces
of historical relics, among which the most characteristic
ones are the bronze wares of the Shang and Zhou
Dynasties, the pottery figures of different dynasties,
the tomb frescoes, gold and silver utensils. There
are over 2,000 pieces of bronze wares in the museum.
Quite a few of them are national-grade rare relics,
such as a bronze tripot of solid built called
"Wai Shu Ding" and a four legged bronze
wine vessel of unique shape. They have brought
much influence to the field of historical relics.
Pottery figure is a kind of important
relic which left over to us from different dynasties
in Chinese history. They have been discovered
constantly all over China. But it is a rare case
that the unearthed pottery figures in Shaanxi
cover the dynasties from the Spring and Autumn
Period down to the Ming and Qing Dynasties. We
cannot help to acclaim them the acme of perfection
for not only their large quantity but also their
variation from dynasty to dynasty.
Ever since 1952, more than 1,000 square
meters of Tang Dynasty tomb frescoes has been
taken off completely in a special method. It has
gained high admiration and fame for its quantity
and excellence. Taking "Fresco of Foreign
Diplomatic Envoys, Fresco of Polo Game on Horse-backs,
Fresco of Maids of Honour" as an example,
they are not only of very high art value, but
also non-fungible data of historical documents
for the study of social activities, cultural life
and clothing customs of the Tang Dynasty.
The collection of gold and silver
vessels from the Tang Dynasty in the museum totals
up to over 900 pieces, which make it the topmost
museum all over the country. Among them, the most
well-known ones are the gold and silver wares
unearthed from the pit at Hejia Village in Xi'an
in 1970. Such as "the ox-headed agate cup"
and "the imperial gilded pot with two punched
horses attached", ect. were ingeniously designed
and showed the ingenuity of the designers.
At the time when the museum was opened
to public, more than 2,200 pieces of rare historical
relics were requizited from other places throughout
Shaanxi Province, which made the museum even more
splendid and well-know. Those include the Gilded
Bamboo Shaped Bronze Smother Stove unearthed from
Maoling, the Bronze Swan-goose-and-fish Lamp unearthed
in Shenmu, ect.
The magnificent of the architecture,
first-class facilities, rich and colorful relics
comprise the special characters of the Shaanxi
History Museum. And it is attracting more and
more visitors from both home and abroad in a completely